Koedijk,, van Rijswijk, Oranje, van den Bergh, Bours, Savelberg & Schaper (2017) Sedentary behaviour and bone health in children, adolescents and young adults: a systematic review.
Sedentary behaviour (SB) is increasing in Western societies and some studies suggest a deleterious effect of SB on bone. The aim of this systematic review was to examine the association between SB and bone health in children, adolescents and young adults. Electronic databases (PubMed, MEDLINE, PsycINFO and Science Citation Index) were searched for relevant articles up to January 9, 2017. Studies were included when results on bone health (e.g. strength, mass and structure) and either subjectively (questionnaires) or objectively (accelerometry) measured SB were reported in healthy participants ≤24 years. Two reviewers independently screened titles and abstracts for eligibility, rated methodological quality and extracted data. Seventeen observational studies were included. Several studies that used DXA or quantitative ultrasound suggested that objectively measured SB was negatively associated with lower extremity bone outcomes, such as femoral neck bone mineral density. The magnitude of this negative association was small and independent of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. In contrast to the lower extremities, there was insufficient evidence for an association of lumbar spine bone outcomes with objectively measured SB. In high-quality studies that used DXA, no association was observed between objectively measured SB and total body bone outcomes. In studies using questionnaires, none of these relationships were observed. Well-designed longitudinal studies, objectively measuring SB, are needed to further unravel the effect of SB, physical activity and their interaction on bone health.