HAMSTRINGS

Whiteley, van Dyk, Wangensteen & Hansen (2018) Clinical implications from daily physiotherapy examination of 131 acute hamstring injuries and their association with running speed and rehabilitation progression

ABSTRACT
Aim To investigate the association of daily clinical measures and the progression of rehabilitation and perceived running effort.
Methods A cohort of 131 athletes with an MRI-confirmed acute hamstring injury underwent a standardised criteria-based rehabilitation protocol. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to investigate the association between daily clinical subjective and objective measures and both the progression of rehabilitation and perceived running effort. These measures included different strength, palpation, flexibility and functional tests. Inter-rater and intrarater reliability and minimal detectable change were established for the clinical measures of strength and flexibility by examining measures taken on consecutive days for the uninjured leg.
Results The progression of the daily measures was seen to be non-linear and varied according to the measure. Intra-rater reliability for the strength and flexibility measures were excellent (95% CI ≥0.85 for all measures). Strength (in the outer range position) and flexibility (in maximum hip flexion with active knee extension (MHFAKE) in supine) were best associated with rehabilitation progression and perceived running effort. Additionally, length of pain on palpation was usefully associated with rehabilitation progression. At lower perceived running effort there was a large variation in actual running speed.
Conclusion Daily physical measures of palpation pain, outer range strength, MHFAKE and reported pain during daily activity are useful to inform the progression of rehabilitation.


Bittencourt, NF., Meeuwisse, WH, Mendonça, LD, Nettel-Aguirre, A, Ocarino, JM & Fonseca, ST (2016) Complex systems approach for sports injuries: moving from risk factor identification to injury pattern recognition—narrative review and new concept

ABSTRACT
Injury prediction is one of the most challenging issues in sports and a key component for injury prevention. Sports injuries aetiology investigations have assumed a reductionist view in which a phenomenon has been simplified into units and analysed as the sum of its basic parts and causality has been seen in a linear and unidirectional way. This reductionist approach relies on correlation and regression analyses and, despite the vast effort to predict sports injuries, it has been limited in its ability to successfully identify predictive factors. The majority of human health conditions are complex. In this sense, the multifactorial complex nature of sports injuries arises not from the linear interaction between isolated and predictive factors, but from the complex interaction among a web of determinants. Thus, the aim of this conceptual paper was to propose a complex system model for sports injuries and to demonstrate how the implementation of complex system thinking may allow us to better address the complex nature of the sports injuries aetiology. According to this model, we should identify features that are hallmarks of complex systems, such as the pattern of relationships (interactions) among determinants, the regularities ( profiles) that simultaneously characterise and constrain the phenomenon and the emerging pattern that arises from the complex web of determinants. In sports practice, this emerging pattern may be related to injury occurrence or adaptation. This novel view of preventive intervention relies on the identification of regularities or risk profile, moving from risk factors to risk pattern recognition.


Mendiguchia, J, Martinez-Ruiz, E, Edouard, P, Morin, JB, Martinez-Martinez, F, Idoate, F & Mendez-Villanueva (2017) A multifactorial, criteria-based progressive algorithm for hamstring injury treatment

ABSTRACT
Introduction Given the prevalence of hamstring injuries in football, a rehabilitation program that effectively promotes muscle tissue repair and functional recovery is paramount to minimize reinjury risk and optimize player performance and availability.
Purpose This study aimed to assess the concurrent effectiveness of administering an individualized and multifactorial criteria-based algorithm (rehabilitation algorithm [RA]) on hamstring injury rehabilitation in comparison with using a general rehabilitation protocol (RP).
Methods Implementing a double-blind randomized controlled trial approach, two equal groups of 24 football players (48 total) completed either an RA group or a validated RP group 5 d after an acute hamstring injury.
Results Within 6 months after return to sport, six hamstring reinjuries occurred in RP versus one injury in RA (relative risk = 6, 90% confidence interval = 1-35; clinical inference: very likely beneficial effect). The average duration of return to sport was possibly quicker (effect size = 0.34 ± 0.42) in RP (23.2 ± 11.7 d) compared with RA (25.5 ± 7.8 d) (-13.8%, 90% confidence interval = -34.0% to 3.4%; clinical inference: possibly small effect). At the time to return to sport, RA players showed substantially better 10-m time, maximal sprinting speed, and greater mechanical variables related to speed (i.e., maximum theoretical speed and maximal horizontal power) than the RP.
Conclusions Although return to sport was slower, male football players who underwent an individualized, multifactorial, criteria-based algorithm with a performance- and primary risk factor-oriented training program from the early stages of the process markedly decreased the risk of reinjury compared with a general protocol where long-length strength training exercises were prioritized


Tristan Chai